What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your primary energy source and comes from your food. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough or any insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although it has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t have diabetes or has a less severe case, but every case is serious.
What are the different types of diabetes?
The most common types of are type 1, 2, and gestational
Type 1 – If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 must take insulin daily to stay alive.
Type 2 – Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. If you have type 2, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 at any age, even during childhood. However, this occurs most often in middle-aged and older people.
Gestational diabetes – It develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of sudden disease goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had a gestational type, you have a greater chance of developing type 2 later in life. Sometimes it can be diagnosed during pregnancy.
Other Types Of Diabetes
Less common types include
- monogenic diabetes
- inherited diabetes
- cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.
Reasons For Drugs Failure
It has been reported that diabetes may affect the pharmacokinetics of various drugs by affecting
(i) absorption due to changes in subcutaneous adipose blood flow, muscle blood flow, and gastric emptying.
(ii) distribution due to non-enzymatic glycation of albumin.
(iii) biotransformation due to regulation of enzymes.
Some Major Health Problems
Over time, high blood glucose leads to problems such as
What Causes Diabetes?
The leading cause regardless of the type is having too much glucose circulating in your bloodstream. However, the reason why your blood glucose levels are high differs depending on the type
- Causes of Type 1: This is an immune system disease. Your body attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. Without insulin to allow glucose to enter your cells, glucose builds up in your bloodstream. Genes may also play a role in some patients. Also, a virus may trigger an immune system attack.
- Cause of Type 2 and prediabetes: Your body’s cells don’t allow insulin to work as it should to let glucose into its cells. Glucose levels rise in your bloodstream. Your body’s cells have become resistant to insulin. Your pancreas can’t keep up and make enough insulin to overcome this resistance.
- Gestational: Hormones produced by the placenta during pregnancy make your body’s cells more resistant to insulin. Your pancreas can’t make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Too much glucose remains in your bloodstream.
There’s much you can do to prevent the development of diabetes (except Type 1). However, if you or your child or adolescent develop symptoms of it, see your healthcare provider. The earlier diagnosis, the sooner steps can be taken to treat and control it. The better you manage your blood sugar level, the more likely you will live a long, healthy life.
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